o(WASC-ACSCU) Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges and Universities
Additionally, the Board of Regents of the State of New York is recognized as an accreditor for degree-granting institutions of higher education in the state that designate the agency as their sole or primary accrediting agency. New York is the only state that is eligible to be federally recognized as an accreditor under a grandfather clause in federal law that allows recognition for state agencies if they were recognized as accreditors before October 1, 1991. Through a 1984 Charter with the Board of Regents of the State of New York, the New York State Association of Independent Schools provides accreditation for New York independent schools that are pre-K through 12th grade.
The national accreditors get their name from their common (but not universal) practice of accrediting schools nationwide or even worldwide.
These accreditors typically cover a specific program of professional education or training, but in some cases they cover the whole institution. CHEA maintains a list of recognized US programmatic accreditors and the U.S. Department of Education similarly maintains a list of Specialized Accrediting Agencies, covering both programmatic and faith-based accreditors.
· The International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE) is a global association of quality assurance organizations, both governmental and non-governmental. It was founded in 1991 with 8 member organizations and now has over 280. It defines its role as “to promote and advance excellence in higher education through the support of an active international community of quality assurance agencies”. Its membership list is available online.
· The United States-based Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) (a non-governmental organization) maintains an International Directory which “contains contact information about 467 quality assurance bodies, accreditation bodies and Ministries of Education in 175 countries. The quality assurance and accreditation bodies have been authorized to operate by their respective governments either as agencies of the government or as private (nongovernmental) organizations.
· The European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) disseminates information, experiences and good practices in the field of quality assurance (QA) in higher education to QA agencies, public authorities and higher education institutions in the European Higher Education Area. It is a membership organization, comprising 51 agencies in 28 countries, and was established in 2000 following a recommendation from the Council of the European Union in 1998.
· The European Quality Assurance Register for Higher Education (EQAR) was established by ENQA, the European Students’ Union (ESI), the European University Association (EUA) and the European Association of Institutions in Higher Education (EURASHE) – the European representative bodies of quality assurance agencies, students, universities and other higher education institutions – to increase the transparency of quality assurance in higher education across Europe. EQAR publishes and manages a register of quality assurance agencies that substantially comply with the European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance (ESG) to provide the public with clear and reliable information on quality assurance agencies operating in Europe. The register is web-based and freely accessible.
· ENIC – NARIC comprises all countries of Europe (including the Holy See and thus all Pontifical Universities worldwide) as well as Australia, Canada, Israel, the United States of America and New Zealand. The website also provides information on the higher education systems of the member countries and the accreditation agencies
· To implement the Lisbon Recognition Convention and, in general, to develop policy and practice for the recognition of qualifications, the Council of Europe and UNESCO have established the ENIC Network (European Network of National Information Centres on academic recognition and mobility). The Council of Europe and UNESCO/CEPES jointly provide the Secretariat for the ENIC Network. The ENIC Network cooperates closely with the NARIC Network of the European Union. The Network is made up of the national information centres of the States party to the European Cultural Convention or the UNESCO Europe Region. An ENIC is a body set up by the national authorities. While the size and specific competence of ENIC may vary, they will generally provide information on: – the recognition of foreign diplomas, degrees and other qualifications; – education systems in both foreign countries and the ENIC’s own country; – opportunities for studying abroad, including information on loans and scholarships, as well as advice on practical questions related to mobility and equivalence.
· The NARIC (National Academic Recognition Information Centre) network is an initiative of the European Commission and was created in 1984. The network aims at improving academic recognition of diplomas and periods of study in the Member States of the European Union (EU) countries, the European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Turkey. The network is part of the Community’s Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP), which stimulates the mobility of students and staff between higher education institutions in these countries. All member countries have designated national centres, the purpose of which is to assist in promoting the mobility of students, teachers and researchers by providing authoritative advice and information concerning the academic recognition of diplomas and periods of study undertaken in other States. The main users of this service are higher education institutions, students and their advisers, parents, teachers and prospective employers. The NARICs were designated by the Ministries of Education in the respective countries, but the status and the scope of work of individual NARICs may differ. In the majority of States, institutions of higher education are autonomous, taking their own decisions on the admission of foreign students and the exemption of parts of courses of study programmes that students may be granted on the basis of education undertaken abroad. As a result, most NARICs do not take a decision, but offer on request information and advice on foreign education systems and qualifications.
· Universities may be founded or accredited only by an Act of Parliament. Vocational universities may be accredited by the Government of Finland, and governed through the Ministry of Education.
· The Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany (Kultusministerkonferenz or KMK) was founded in 1948 by an agreement between the states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Among its core responsibilities, the KMK ensures quality development and continuity in tertiary education. Bachelor and Master programs must be accredited in accordance to a resolution of the Kultusministerkonerenz.
· The German Council of Science and Humanities (Wissenschaftsrat) was founded on September 5, 1957, and conducts institutional accreditation of private and religious universities since 2001.
· The Foundation for the Accreditation of Study Programs in Germany or Accreditation Council (Akkreditierungsrat) was created in a KMK resolution on October 15, 2004. The Accreditation Council certifies accreditation agencies and establishes guidelines and criteria for program and system accreditation. There are currently ten certified agencies.
· AHPGS – Accreditation Agency for Study Programs in Special Education, Care, Health Sciences and Social Work
· AKAST – Agency for Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Canonical Study Programs
· ACQUIN – Accreditation, Certification and Quality Assurance Institute
· AQAS – Agency for Quality Assurance by Accreditation of Study Programs
· AQ Austria – Agency for Quality Assurance and Accreditation Austria
· ASIIN – Accreditation Agency for Degree Programs in Engineering, Informatics/Computer Science, the Natural Sciences and Mathematics
· evalag – Evaluation Agency Baden-Württemberg
· FIBAA – Foundation for International Business Administration Accreditation
· OAQ – Swiss Center of Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Higher Education
· ZEVA – Central Evaluation- and Accreditation Agency
· These agencies accredit programs of study for Bachelor and master’s degrees and quality management systems (system accreditation) from state or state recognized Higher Education institutions in Germany and abroad. AKAST only accredit programs of study.
· In Spain, ANECA or Agencia Nacional de la Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación (National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation) is the authorised national body responsible for the quality of the Spanish high education system. It was created as a foundation in 2002 by the Cabinet of Spain under the Organic Law of Universities.
· United Kingdom
· Under the Education Reform Act 1988 it is illegal to offer a degree or qualification that implies it is a degree, unless the institution offering it is authorised by a Royal Charter or by or under an Act of Parliament, or is acting on behalf of an institution so authorised, or the award has been specifically designated by order of the Secretary of State. The government maintains lists of “recognised bodies” that have the right to grant UK degrees, and of “listed bodies” that offer courses validated by a recognised body and leading to degrees of that body. UK institutions offering courses leading to degrees are subject to quality assurance by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA). The QAA is a member of INQAAHE and ENQA.
· Professional degrees may be accredited by professional, statutory and regulatory bodies to ensure they meet the educational standards for professional licensure; a list of accrediting bodies recognised by the government is maintained by the Higher Education Statistics Agency.
· For non-degree qualifications, including courses at the higher education level, there are four public accrediting bodies for the four countries of the United Kingdom. These are:
· Ofqual in England
· Qualifications Wales
· The Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment in Northern Ireland
· The Scottish Qualifications Authority
· All qualifications accredited by these bodies will have a level and a credit value on the Regulated Qualifications Framework (England and Northern Ireland), the Credit and Qualifications Framework for Wales, or the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework. Bodies with accredited qualifications, such as City & Guilds, may themselves accredit education providers to deliver courses leading to these qualifications.
· There are, additionally, four bodies offering institutional accreditation for private colleges that are recognized by the UK government for visa purposes:
· The Accreditation Service for International Colleges (ASIC) for independent colleges in UK and colleges and universities worldwide. ASIC is an affiliate of ENQA.
· The British Accreditation Council (BAC) for independent higher education and further education institutions across the UK. BAC is also a member of INQAAHE and ENQA.
· Accreditation UK, part of the British Council (a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, for English language schools only.
· The Accreditation Body for Language Services (ABLS) for English language schools.
· Additionally, the Open and Distance Learning Quality Council (ODLQC) was established by the government in 1969 as the Council for the Accreditation of Correspondence Colleges and took its current name in 1995. It is now an independent body that accredits home study, distance learning and online learning providers.
· Hong Kong
· In Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications (HKCAAVQ) conducts accreditation under an ordinance that took effect on 1 October 2007. The former Hong Kong Council for Academic Accreditation was replaced by this new authority. The HKCAAVQ maintains a list of accredited programs and programs accredited by the HKCAAVQ also may be entered into Hong Kong’s Qualifications Register.
· Hong Kong Bar Association
· Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications
· Universities in India are created constitutionally, through government action. Institutions “which are not established under either Central or State or UGC Act” are labeled “fake universities/vishwavidyalayas” and lack authority to grant degrees.
· Recognition or accreditation of courses of study is under the authority of a set of professional councils established by statute and other autonomous coordinative or regulatory bodies established or recognized by the University Grants Commission:
· All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) to be superseded by the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) for technical and management colleges
· Quality Council of India (QCI)
· Distance Education Council (DEC)
· Brazil Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura (MEC)
· National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
· Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
· Bar Council of India (BCI)
· Scientific Institute and Research Organizations (SIROs)
· National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
· Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)
· Medical Council of India (MCI)
· Pharmacy Council Of India (PCI)
· Indian Nursing Council (INC)
· National Council for Indian Education (NCIE)
· Dental Council of India (DCI)
· Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH)
· Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM)
· National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC)
· Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD)
· Association of Indian Universities (AIU)
· Institute of Management & engineering (IME)
· Indian Maritime University(IMU)
· Indra Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)
· In Malaysia, the Malaysian Qualifications Agency (MQA) is a statutory body to accredit academic programs provided by educational institutions providing post secondary or higher education and facilitate the accreditation and articulation of qualifications.
· There are also some other recognized organizations who regulate their specific technical fields, which includes:
· Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM)
· Malaysian Medical Council (MMC)
· Malaysian Dental Council (MDC)
· Pharmacy Board Malaysia
· Malaysian Chinese Medical Associations (MCMA)
· Federation of Chinese Physicians and Acupuncturists Associations Malaysia (FCPAAM)
· Malaysia Nursing Board
· Malaysian Veterinary Council (MVC)
· Malaysian Homeopathic Medical Council (MPHM)
· Board of Architects Malaysia (LAM)
· Board of Quantity Surveyors Malaysia (BQSM)
· Malaysian Bar Council
· Malaysian Institute of Accountants (MIA)
· Chartered Tax Institute of Malaysia (CTIM)
· Financial Planning Association of Malaysia (FPAM)
· Asian Institute of Chartered Bankers (AICB)
· Malaysian Association of Company Secretaries (MACS)
· The Malaysian Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (MAICSA)
· Board of Valuers, Appraisers & Real Estate Agents Malaysia (LPPEH)
· The Society of Logisticians, Malaysia
· Universities in Nepal are established through government action. Four current universities, Four being established universities and Three other technical institutes are recognized by the government body “University grants commission”.
· Other than that, the Council For Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT), established in 1989, by the Government of Nepal is the national autonomous apex body of Technical and Vocational Education and Training regulation. There are also some other recognized organizations who regulate their specific technical fields. They are:
· Nepal Engineering Council
· Nepal Nursing Council
· Nepal Medical Council
· Nepal Pharmacy Council
· Nepal Bar Council
· New Zealand
· The New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA).
· A university in Nicaragua (public or private) can only be established with evaluation and approval (authorisation) by the National Council of Universities (CNU Consejo Nacional de Universidades) as precursor to being founded by Act of Parliament. Such recognised universities enjoy the full Anglo-Saxon-style autonomy and require no programme accreditations. The National Council of Evaluation and Accreditation (CNEA) is the quality assurance agency. All recognised universities must participate in the quality assurance programme including mandatory auto-evaluation and reporting to CNEA, and may pursue deliberate institutional accreditation by CNEA or an accreditation agency recognised by CNEA. However, CNEA accreditation does only apply to already recognised universities and does not substitute the required CNU autorization (first accreditation).
· In 2003, Canada began helping Pakistan develop an accreditation system. As stated in “Ordinance No. LIII of 2002, Para 10, Clause e”, the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan may set up national or regional evaluation councils or authorize any existing council or similar body to carry out accreditation of institutions including their departments, facilities and disciplines by giving them appropriate ratings.
· Established under Quality Assurance Agency of HEC
· National Accreditation Council for Teachers Education (NACTE)
· National Agricultural Education Accreditation Council (NAEAC)
· National Business Education Accreditation Council (NBEAC)
· National Computing Education Accreditation Council (NCEAC)
· HEC independent professional bodies
· Pakistan Bar Council (PBC)
· Pakistan Council for Architects and Town Planners (PCATP)